TECHNICAL INFORMATION

ANALYSIS OF DYNAMIC DESCALER

TECHNICAL INFORMATION

Analysis of Dynamic Descaler

CORROSION TESTING

Water Scale And Sedimentation Removal System


Don't be misled by companies that claim their descaler is "non-corrosive." The fact is that all effective descalers result in some equipment corrosion. T
o prolong the life of your equipment, it's important to use a descaler with a low corrosion rate.

Based on corrosion tests undertaken by an independent lab, Dynamic Descaler has the lowest corrosion rate of ANY descaler.


Corrosion Testing Procedures 

Corrosion Test

 

 

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Manufacturing a chemical means making the users feel comfortable about the product. We are both proud and certain that Dynamic Descaler is a well produced product that is now being used around the globe.

We take pride in both the longevity and low corrosion rates of our Dynamic Descaler and we will challenge any and all competitors in this area. Since early 1940 one competitor who has been well established still states that their product is non-corrosive. One must ask, "who has any experience in chemistry", how this is possible if their product has over 2.9% of hydrochloric acid in its makeup?

We test the Dynamic Descaler on a regular basis. We use the same procedure as the US Navy using the guidelines of ASTM G31 which consists of using 0.75" X 2" X 0.125" coupons. The coupons range from 90/10 to 70/30 copper nickel. Most heat exchangers, condensers and evaporators have this type of copper used. The coupons are ordered from Metal Samples in Munford, Alabama, United States which is the same source used by the US Navy.

The procedure is as follows:

  1. We place one of the pre-weighted coupons in a 500 ml beaker with 450 ml of Dynamic Descaler solution. The pre-weight is the pre-test weight.
  2. The coupon is submersed for six hours and is held by a holding support
  3. After six hours the coupon is removed, and set to dry for one hour on a dry cloth.
  4. After drying the coupon is taken to an independent lab called the Manufacturer's Testing Laboratory in Crowley, Texas, USA. Here the coupon is cleaned and rinsed and dried thoroughly by their procedures to remove any contaminants and weighed for a post-test weight. In this way a true "coupon only" weight is obtained after being submersed in Dynamic Descaler.
  5. The difference in weight indicates the corrosion. The coupon is weighed with an analytical balance to the nearest 0.1 mg. The weight is typically in grams.
  6. The weight difference is then converted into mills per year as follow using ASTM G-31: Corrosion Rate = (Constant K x Mass in grams) / (Area in cm2 A x Time in hours T x density in grams/cm3 D) or (K x W)/ (A x T x D). Corrosion Constant K is 3,450,000 for mills per year (mpy). Other constants for K are 3,450 for inches per year (ipy), and 87,600 for millimetres per year (mm/y).

If your company is using a descaler and the manufacturer states that it has up to 10% of HCl (hydrochloric acid), (usually stated as less than10% Hcl on a material safety data sheet) and implies that it is non-corrosive, you need to have an independent lab conduct a corrosion test on the product as soon as possible for both the safety of your employees and to your equipment.


Further Information and Advice:


If you have ANY questions regarding the test procedures used in Dynamic Descaler, please do not hesitate to contact the manufacturing location and test facilities at: 1-800-388-5818 or international (817) 447-9898 or e-mail: david@dynamicdescaler.com

 

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

Corrosion Testing According To ASTM G31

 

Units are mils per year (MPY)

 
Dynamic Descaler (Bio D'Scale)
Competitor
Bronze
4.57
10.1
90/10 Cu/Ni
5.83
11.1
70/30 Cu/Ni
5.83
6.64
90/10 Cu/Ni W
n/a
n/a


As you can see the corrosion rates of Dynamic Descaler are substantially lower than the competition.
The above corrosion rates are according to the U.S. Navy Commercial Item Description (CID) Heat Exchanger Cleaning Compound. The maximum corrosion rate is 20 mils per year (MPY).

» Scale Dissolving Ability
Put one gram of Calcium Carbonate in fifty mls of cleaning compound. Measure time to dissolve.

 
Dynamic Descaler (Bio D'Scale)
Competitor
Test 1
2 min. 51 sec.
3 min. 36 sec.
Test 2
3 min. 20 sec.
3 min. 28 sec.
Test 3
2 min. 49 sec.
3 min. 14 sec.
Average
3 min. 00 sec.
3 min. 26 sec.
 

Scale dissolving ability is a test that measures how fast the descaler will dissolve scale. The results show that Dynamic Descaler dissolved the calcium carbonate, which is the primary compound in boiler scale, much faster than our competitor.

» Scale Neutralizing Ability
In pounds dissolved per gallon of cleaning compound.

 
Dynamic Descaler (Bio D'Scale)
Competitor
Test 1
2.50
1.78
Test 2
2.88
1.75
Test 3
2.42
1.48
Average
2.60
1.67


Scale neutralizing ability is a titration that measures how much the descaler solution can dissolve.
The maximum time allowed for this analysis is 1 hour. Dynamic Descaler dissolves 56% more scale than our competitor.

* Dynamic Descaler is also known as Bio D'Scale in Asia and as Precision Descaler in some US states

THE DOMINO EFFECT

Avoiding Costly Breakdowns


When the cooling side of an equipment is not maintained, ALL other parts will eventually breakdown.

Example 1:

When your car engine is overheating due to rust and scale in the water system (radiator & engine block), it will:

a) Increase fuel usage
b) More usage of engine oil, carbon build up will be faster, effecting spark plugs etc.
c) If nothing is done about this, pistons will start to wear out and finally an overhaul will be needed.

Example 2:

When your WCPU (Water Chilled Package Unit) starts producing warm air it is normally because the condensers are full of scale, rust! However most of the time “they” tell you to change the compressors which cost thousands of £pounds!!! 


This is what happens :

Due to the sedimentation, heat transfer does not take place. Therefore condensation of R22 gas does not occur. R22 goes back to the receiver tank in mainly gas form, which will eventually damage the compressor and “they” will be right - you have to change the compressor for £££££ and keep changing it frequently because the condensers are still not cleaned! 

Regular cleaning and maintaining the condensers will not only keep the air cool but prolong the lifespan of the compressors and save you £££££.

ENERGY COST

Energy Cost of Waterside Fouling In Industrial Equipment


Energy is by far the largest component of the total life cycle cost of most energy-using equipment!

Country
Fouling ($ Million)
1992 GNP ($ Billion)
Fouling Cost/GNP %
UK
2500
1000
0.25
US
14,175
5670
0.25
New Zealand
64.5
43
0.15
Germany
4875
1950
0.25
Japan
10,000
4000
0.25
Australia
463
309
0.15
Total Industrialized World
45,029
22,510
0.20


The evidence shows that fouling on the waterside of your equipment will increase your energy cost tremendously. Current methods of maintenance/cleaning would not be able to address this problem as equipment is not cleaned to bare metal and fouling is spread over a large surface area.

A good proactive/predictive maintenance program, with regards to waterside fouling, reduces unplanned shutdowns, astronomical energy and operational costs, lower maintenance budgets and maintaining optimum operating efficiency in equipment.

The effectiveness of heat exchangers is reduced with the increase in thermal resistance; even a minute layer of fouling reduces thermal conductivity.

Plainly stated, the growing cost of maintenance is a serious business problem. According to DuPont, "maintenance is the largest single controllable expenditure in a plant: in many companies it often exceeds annual net profit." 

One major U.S. automotive manufacturer has a maintenance staff of between 15,000 and 18,000, all plants combined. They say, "85% to 90% is crisis work" (breakdown).

Due to the:

1. Introduction of new water continuously, 
2. Existing fouling in the piping system,

Fouling cannot be avoided in everyday situations, it can only be minimized.


Two basic and effective ways to reduce energy costs that apply to all energy production, distribution and end-use categories are:

1. To reduce the load or need for energy
2. Increase the operating efficiency of energy-using equipment
Maintenance Strategy Technique Needed Human Body Parallel
Proactive Maintenance Monitoring and correction of failing root causes, e.g. periodic removal of water based scale with BIO Cholesteral or blood pressure monitoring with diet control
Predictive Maintenance Monitoring of vibration, heat, alignment wear, debris. Detection of heart disease using EKG or ultrasonics
Preventive Maintenance Periodic component replacement By-pass or transplant surgery
Breakdown Maintenance Large maintenance budget Heart attack or stroke

FOULING IN HEAT EXCHANGERS


What is Fouling? 

Fouling is generally defined as the accumulation of unwanted materials on the surfaces of processing equipment. It has been recognized as a nearly universal problem in design and operation and affects the operation of equipment in two ways:

  • The fouling layer has a low thermal conductivity. This increases the resistance to heat transfer and reduces the effectiveness of heat exchangers – increasing temperature

  • As deposition occurs, the cross-sectional area is reduced, which causes an increase in pressure drop across the apparatus


Cost Due to Fouling

Despite the enormous costs associated with fouling, only very limited research has been done on this subject. Reliable knowledge of fouling economics is important when evaluating the cost efficiency of various mitigation strategies. The total fouling-related cost can be broken down into four main areas:

  • Capital expenditure, which includes excess surface area (10-50%, with an average around 35%), costs for stronger foundations, provisions for extra space, increased transport and installation costs.

  • Extra fuel costs, which arise if fouling leads to extra fuel burning in furnaces or boilers or if more secondary energy such as electricity or process steam is needed to overcome the effects of fouling.

  • Production losses during planned and unplanned plant shutdowns due to fouling.

  • These are often considered to be the main costs of fouling and are very difficult to estimate.


According to Pritchard and Thackery (Harwell Laboratories), about 15% of the maintenance costs of a process plant can be attributed to heat exchangers and boilers, and of this, half is probably caused by fouling.

Fouling can be very costly in refinery and petrochemical plants since it increases fuel usage, results in interrupted operation and production losses, and increases maintenance costs. Panchal (Argonne National Laboratory), based on the study of Van Nostrand, re-estimated the energy and economic penalties associated with heat exchanger fouling for the US refineries, as more than $2 billion per year. The maintenance costs in the USA were revised because they have increased significantly due to recent environmental regulations. 

Typically, cleaning costs are in the range of $40,000 to $50,000 per heat exchanger per cleaning. Garrett-Price and Pritchard found that total heat exchanger fouling costs for highly industrialised countries such as the US and the UK are about 0.25% of the countries’ gross national product (GNP). Steinhagen et al found that the fouling costs for New Zealand are 0.15% of the New Zealand GNP, which is less than for industrialised countries. Using these percentages, Müller-Steinhagen lists total fouling related costs for various countries based on 1992 US$.

WATER SCALE

Water Scale And Sedimentation Removal System


What is Water Scale?

Water Scale is a coating or precipitate deposited on surfaces that are in contact with hard water.

Water that contains carbonates or bicarbonates of calcium or magnesium is especially likely to cause scale. When water is heated or evaporation takes place, scale minerals precipitate layers of rock-like deposits inside pipes, water heaters, equipment, and on fixtures and glassware.

While most common scale is a result of calcium carbonate, other combinations of ions commonly found in water offer a variety of scale.

Water Scale deposits interfere with heat exchangers and reduce their efficiency by insulating the heat transfer surfaces. The most common form of scale in cooling water systems is calcium carbonate (CaC03). In the water, calcium ions combine with bicarbonate to form calcium bicarbonate: (Ca++)+(2HCO) Ca(HCO3)2.

If Water Scale deposits are left to accumulate, water flow is restricted and piping and heat exchanger tubes become plugged. Ultimately, ignoring scale depositions can lead to the destruction and possible failure of heat exchanger tubes. In addition to loss of efficiency, process contamination can occur. 


Common Evidence of Water Scale

Water Scale is most visually evident as hard white to off white deposits which buildup in faucets, shower heads and drains.

Water Scale leaves deposits on dishes, glassware, sinks, counter tops and on vehicles that were just washed. Most Water Scale formations are hard and very difficult to clean. Visual references also include fixtures such as toilets, bathtubs, showers and appliances like coffee and ice makers. 

Swimming pools and spa's can experience scale build up on tile and pump equipment. Cooling towers have tremendous scale problems that causes industries alone £1 billion a year to remove. 

Evaporative coolers, boilers, car washes, irrigation systems, processing equipment, paper pulp mills all experience Water Scale problems. Because Water Scale forms a "coating" it can significantly effect thermo-transfer and reduce the flow of fluids. The increase of fuel cost due to scale build-up is astronomical.


A £Billion Problem!!!

Water borne sedimentation i.e. Scale, rust, lime and silica that builds up in the waterside of your equipment causes £billions in losses to industries in breakdowns, unplanned shutdowns, process contamination, high product reject rate, expensive parts replacements etc.. 

Present/Conventional Methods Used to Remove Water Borne Sedimentation.

  • Industrial Acids e.g. Phosphoric Acid, Sulfuric Acid, Barium Nitrate, Glycine Acid etc..
  • Rodding
  • High Pressure Steam
  • Scrapping
  • High Pressure Water Jet
  • Last but not least - replacement of the equipment!

None of the above are effective, some are even damaging to the equipment, in that some of these methods can only bring the equipment back to optimum operating efficiencies by compromising downtime, and the integrity of the equipment.

Before and after treatment with Dynamic Descaler

 

 

 

 

 

 

Present Methods of Preventing Sedimentation or better known as Fouling.

  • Ion-Exchange
  • Phosphates
  • Permanent Magnets
  • Electronic Conditioning
  • Inhibitors - scale, rust, algae, bacteria

Some of the above methods are effective in SLOWING DOWN the process of scaling and should be used, BUT it does not remove or totally prevent sedimentation build up.

SAVINGS

Industrial Downtime Savings During Waterside Maintenance


What is Downtime?

  • Man Hours
  • Inclusive of Overtime
  • Production Time

With Dynamic Descaler your equipment is up and running in hours, while all conventional methods takes days. Imagine the downtime cost that you will save!

Before Cleaning With Dynamic Descaler After Cleaning With Dynamic Descaler
Dynamic Descaler cleaned some oxidized parts in about a minute!


Your Downtime For Unnecessary Breakdowns


Prevent Unnecessary Accidents to Personnel

  • Conventional cleaning methods require lifting, handling and dismantling heavy equipment. Many still use industrial acid which is harmful to personnel & environment.


Energy Cost

  • Fouling on the waterside of your equipment will increase your energy cost tremendously.


Efficient & Uninterrupted Production and Quality

  • The cleaner the waterside of a mould the faster the mould cycle will be and fewer rate of rejects will occur, thereby increasing production.


No Need For Excessive Spare Parts or Auxiliary Units

  • Frequent changing of old parts to new parts in older equipment leads to more downtime!


Prolongs The Lifespan of Your Equipment

  • Proper asset management thus reducing capital cost.

     

Before Cleaning With Dynamic Descaler
After Cleaning With Dynamic Descaler
Before
After

Don't you want your equipment to look like this?
!
 
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